a, Standard curve for qPCR primers. The PCR product of the S gene that was serial diluted in the range of 108 to 101 (lines from left to right) was used as a template. Primer sequences and experimental conditions are described in the Methods. b, Specificity of the qPCR primers. Nucleotide samples from the indicated pathogens were used.
a, b, Vero E6 cells are shown at 24 h after infection with mock virus (a) or 2019-nCoV (b). c, d, Mock-virus-infected (c) or 2019-nCoV-infected (d) samples were stained with rabbit serum raised against recombinant SARSr-CoV Rp3 N protein (red) and DAPI (blue). The experiment was conducted twice independently with similar results. e, The ratio of the number of reads related to 2019-nCoV among the total number of virus-related reads in metagenomics analysis of supernatants from Vero E6 cell cultures. f, Virus growth in Vero E6 cells. g, Viral particles in the ultrathin sections were imaged using electron microscopy at 200 kV. The sample was from virus-infected Vero E6 cells. The inset shows the viral particles in an intra-cytosolic vacuole.
Each serum sample was tested in triplicate. Serum samples from two healthy individuals from Wuhan and five patients as well as a horse anti-SARS-CoV anti-serum were used. We used 120 TCID50 viruses per well. Serum samples were used at dilutions of 1:10, 1:20, 1:40 and 1:80. neg, negative; VNT, virus neutralization test.
Z.-L.S., P.Z., Y.-Y.W. and G.-F.X. conceived the study. X.-G.W., C.-L.H., H.-D.C., F.D., Q.-J.C., F.-X.Z. and L.-L.L. collected patient samples. X.-L.Y., B.Y., W.Z., B.L., J.C., X.-S.Z., Y.L., H.G., R.-D.J., M.-Q.L., Y.C., X.W., X.-R.S. and K.Z. performed qPCR, serology and virus culturing experiments. L.Z., Y.Z., H.-R.S. and B.H. performed genome sequencing and annotations.
The most immediate step will be to expand our efforts to recruit editors, editorial board members, and reviewers from diverse backgrounds. In addition, our team has been paying close attention to concerns raised about biases in the evaluation of work that includes samples from under-represented groups or from authors from under-represented backgrounds. For instance, studies with samples from under-represented groups have sometimes been criticized for a lack of generalizability, whereas samples of college students get a pass on this issue (Atherton, 2021). We pledge to watch for these problematic comments in reviews and decision letters to reduce the negative impact that such biases have. Anyone who has concerns about their experiences during the review process can contact the editor-in-chief at any time.
When accounting for the total mass, 92% of the debris found in the patch consists of objects larger than 0.5 cm, and three-quarters of the total mass is made of macro- and mega plastic. However, in terms of object count, 94% of the total is represented by microplastics.
Plastic has increasingly become a ubiquitous substance in the ocean. Due to its size and color, animals confuse the plastic for food, causing malnutrition; it poses entanglement risks and threatens their overall behavior, health, and existence. 84% of samples contained toxic chemicals Studies have shown that about 700 species have encountered marine debris, and 92% of these interactions are with plastic. 17% of the species affected by plastic are on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List of Threatened Species.
The fleet returned with over 1.2 million plastic samples that rendered an unprecedented amount of plastic measurements from the three months of study. Scientists present on the expedition noted that there was an alarming amount of plastic floating in the patch, and their preliminary findings indicated that there were more large objects than originally expected.
Every piece of plastic that was recovered was cleaned, counted and classified by size and type. In total, 1.2 million plastic samples were counted, one by one, and were used to further study the physical properties and toxicity of the plastic that floats in the GPGP.
It is commonly known that harmful PBT (Persistent Bio-accumulative Toxic) chemicals are found in ocean plastics, so researchers at The Ocean Cleanup tested plastic samples from the expeditions for their chemical levels. Their results helped them to realize what chemicals are present in the patch and what that means for animals feeding there.
In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.).
Stefanie P. Glaeser, Olivia Sowinsky, Jana S. Brunner, Wolfgang Dott, Peter Kämpfer, Cultivation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant staphylococci from input and output samples of German biogas plants, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Volume 92, Issue 3, March 2016, fiw010,
Our IMAC PhyTip columns are packed with high capacity Nickel-IMAC affinity resin and are used to purify biologically functional, recombinant His-tagged recombinant proteins and consistently generate purified samples of high purity and concentration by dual flow chromatography.
PhyNexus now part of Biotage developed the PhyTip column in 2002 and have supported researchers with automated protein purification ever since. PhyTip columns purified samples by repeated back-and-forth cycles - a process called dual flow chromatography - allowing complete binding interactions in each purification step.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.FeaturesSpecificationsDownstream applicationCloning, NGS, In Vitro Transcription, Nucleic Acid Labeling, PCR, Real-Time Quantitative PCR (qPCR), Sequencing, Southern BlottingElution volume15 µL or aboveStarting materialDNA or RNA: PCR products, gDNA, cDNAStarting amountScalableDNA recovered>90% recovery for DNA >100 bpProcessing modeAutomated; manualThroughput96-384 samples per runDNA binding technologyMagnetic beadsStorage2C - 8CSpecial noteSize selection by varying beads ratioProtocol and ResourcesProduct Documentation & Literature
In the replication stage, the two novel loci and the four novel associations at established loci were examined in independent populations from the Blood Cell Consortium (BCX)  after excluding the overlapped BioMe multi-ethnic and WHI EA samples. BCX represents the largest published trans-ethnic meta-analysis of blood cell traits, with a total of 746,667 participants (76% EA, 20% East Asian, 2% AA, 1% HL, and 1% South Asian). None of the six loci showed evidence of association in the replication stage (Supplemental Table 5). All variants showed consistent directions except for the MED13L variant.
Compared to the PAGE global paper , the current analyses included more samples and evaluated more phenotypes. We included samples genotyped on the MEGA array as well as additional samples genotyped on other Illumina or Affymetrix arrays from the participating studies, leading to more than a 128% increase in sample size compared to the PAGE global paper. In addition, the current analyses included eight phenotypes while the global paper focused on WBC and PLT. Our study has several limitations. First, the sample sizes of the underrepresented AA and HL populations remained limited compared to sample sizes available in Euro-centric GWAS (with over 500,000 EA participants in the BCX Consortium ). The relatively modest sample sizes limited the power to identify additional novel loci in the univariate association analyses and the multi-trait association analysis. Second, we were unable to examine the underrepresented Native American and Hawaiian populations. These participants were included in our PAGE Study but had limited numbers of white blood cell and platelet trait measurements. Studies on these ancestral groups currently are extremely sparse and continued efforts to include them in genetic association analyses are needed. Third, the usage of the European reference transcriptome may have introduced bias and the relatively limited sample sizes may have contributed to the absence of novel gene findings in the PrediXcan analysis, reinforcing the need to collect transcriptomics data and construct tailored models in minority populations.
In the discovery stage, we performed both univariate GWAS analysis for each of the eight traits and aSPU simulation-based method which jointly tested all eight traits . For WBC and the five subtypes (BAS, EOS, LYM, MON, and NEU), values were log10 transformed before association analysis. For PLT and MPV, raw values were used. For samples genotyped on the MEGA array, residual values for each trait were calculated from linear regression models after adjustment for age, age2, sex (when applicable), center (when applicable), and the first 10 principal components (PC). For samples previously genotyped on either other Illumina or Affymetrix arrays, residual values for each trait were calculated from linear regression models after adjustment for age, age2, sex (when applicable), center (when applicable), and the first 10 PCs calculated from an LD-pruned set of genotypes in each individual study. In the univariate GWAS analysis, we tested the association of each genetic variant with the rank-based inverse-normally transformed residual values in MEGA samples and in each individual study, respectively. All MEGA samples were pooled toge